La formación de un Melancólico Poliedro

Autores: Evaristo Amoedo Gómez. Topógrafo. Pablo Pardal Redondo. Arquitecto.

Desde hace varios años venimos experimentando en la construcción de formas geométricas espaciales mediante el uso de materiales diversos como el papel, la chapa, el cartón o la madera.

Durante el desarrollo de la asignatura `Melancólicos Poliedros´, impartida por el profesor  Antonio Sáseta durante el curso 2015-16, adquirimos las claves para el diseño y ejecución de formas poliédricas, a través del control paramétrico de las variables que definen su geometría mediante el programa de diseño paramétrico Grasshopper. Posteriormente procedimos a la materialización de estas formas a través de las herramientas de producción ubicadas en el Taller de Prototipado / Fab-Lab de la Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura. El resultado de este proceso nos ha permitido construir de manera mas intuitiva a la vez que controlada, aquellos tipos de objetos que desde hacía tanto tiempo ocupaban nuestras manos y nuestras mentes.

01

La publicación de este articulo pretende dar a conocer, a modo de manual, el proceso de trabajo que ha conducido a nuestro último ejercicio de clase para la asignatura antes referida, sirviendo como ejemplo de  caso práctico cuyo seguimiento permita al profano en la materia  introducirse en el manejo de programas informáticos de diseño paramétrico.

02

La concepción de la forma.

El objeto cuyo desarrollo os presentamos, es  un poliedro irregular formado por 90 caras, con forma algo parecida a un gigantesco diamante o a un balón de rugby. El procedimiento para la creación del mismo consta de distintas etapas en las que se utilizan distintos programas informáticos.

Comenzamos pues con la descripción del diseño paramétrico de nuestra figura, utilizando para ello el programa Grasshopper.

03

 

- Trazamos un círculo en un plano horizontal al cual damos un radio determinado, surgiendo así el primer parámetro que es el radio del círculo. Asignamos pues a la forma básica que es el círculo una primera barra `slider´ o deslizador que, al ser desplazado entre dos parámetros (por ejemplo 0-100) nos permite visualizar el círculo en distintos tamaños.

- A continuación dividiremos el círculo en una serie de segmentos de igual longitud (en nuestro caso 9) para lo cual definiremos la segunda de las variables y le asignamos un nuevo deslizador: el número de divisiones del círculo.

- Por último asignamos una  altura a cada uno de los puntos donde se produce la división del círculo, obteniendo para cada punto una `z´distinta y siendo esta longitud la tercera de las variables parametrizadas: la altura Z de cada punto.

El resultado de la aplicación sobre el círculo de los distintos pasos descritos en el párrafo anterior, da lugar a lo que hemos llamado una espira, forma base que repetida espacialmente con un giro igual a 360º/9 = 40º (el número de segmentos en que se halla dividido el círculo origen de la pieza). El giro de una espira 40º, nos permite definir la primera secuencia de caras al unir el conjunto de puntos resultantes entre sí.

04

Esta primera composición de caras dada entre los puntos de mayor y menor altura de la figura, la reproducimos el mismo número de veces en que habíamos dividido el círculo (9 en nuestro caso), girándolas nuevamente entre sí con el mismo ángulo anterior, mediante su adición,  logramos como resultado la forma poliédrica deseada.

05

El control paramétrico de las distintas variables que definen geométricamente a nuestro objeto, nos permitió experimentar gráficamente las distintas posibilidades de la figura de manera previa a su ejecución. Una vez decidida la forma deseada, pasamos a la fase de Ejecución.

La materialización de una geometría espacial.

Para la construcción del objeto, recurrimos al programa Rhinoceros mediante el cual procedimos al abatimiento de cada una de las caras del poliedro, permitiéndonos esto determinar con exactitud el ángulo que forman los lados de cada una de las caras del poliedro entre sí,  así como el ángulo existente entre las distintas caras.

06

Obtenidos estos datos,  dibujamos en dos dimensiones las plantillas, compuestas por la adición de cada una de las caras, siguiendo el recorrido de la espira existente entre los dos polos de la figura. A cada una de las caras de la espira le anexamos una pestaña que nos servirá para el pegado de las espiras entre sí,  la primera mitad de caras en un lado, la segunda mitad en el otro (Figura 7).

07

Por último procedemos al corte sobre cartulina mediante el archivo informático en formato vectorial, obteniendo el número de plantillas necesarias para proceder a la unión de las mismas a través del pegado de las pestañas.

10

Una vez secada la pieza, hemos procedido a su cubrición y acabado mediante distintas capas de esmalte sintético color marfil. Atravesando su interior le hemos colocado un hilo que lo mantiene en posición vertical, lo cual permite así mismo el giro alrededor de su eje del poliedro.

El primer prototipo construido de nuestra figura, se haya en la actualidad suspendido del techo del Fab Lab, junto a otros trabajos de compañeros y alumnos… Allí lo podrás encontrar y observar su movimiento, primero en un sentido, después en el otro… La inercia lo mantendrá en estado dinámico durante un buen tiempo... como si de un ser con vida propia se tratara!

Concluimos resaltando que el  contenido y objetivos de la asignatura Melancólicos Poliedros, se proyecta y actualiza día a día, a través del foro abierto en internet.

una aventura en el espacio virtual  que esperamos sea igualmente fructífera en el campo de la aplicación práctica.

08

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